Currently the PUMAS collection contains **93** examples.

The PUMAS examples are aimed primarily at helping pre-college teachers enrich their presentation of topics in math and science.

- You may find
**a number of examples**that relate to your area of interest, perhaps written in different styles, and possibly taking different approaches to the material. There may also be**comments/lesson plans**filed with some of the examples, written by previous users. **Use these examples as a**-- Select, adapt, recontextualize, and present the material to your students in a way that you judge will best meet your students' needs, abilities, and interests.*resource*- You may have ideas related to a particular example that might be helpful to subsequent users. There is an opportunity, on the "Display an Example" page associated with that example, for you to
**submit your comments/lesson plans**. - PUMAS examples are
**citable references**. If you use material from PUMAS examples in other work, please cite them appropriately, e.g.: Chambers, L.H., "How Now, Pythagoras?", 07_10_98_1, The PUMAS Collection, http://pumas.nasa.gov, 1998.

This is a good way to start, or to find examples added after a certain date. **Click links below** to get the list of all the **PUMAS Examples**, arranged by that field.

by Title | by Grade Level | by Date Accepted | by Benchmarks | by Author

- Launch Speed
- Right Place, Wrong Time
- The Fall of the Ruler
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations

- How Far Can You See?
- Launch Speed
- Pilots, Airplanes, and the Tangent of Three (3) Degrees
- There's Air in There!
- Water Bottles, Root Beer, and Air
- Making Clouds: Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in a Beaker

- Algebra Magic - Create Your Own Number Puzzles
- Cross Section and Slope
- Grandpa’s Social Security
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations
- Finding All Solutions to a Puzzle
- Measuring the Earth
- Proving the Pythagorean Theorem

- Determining the Altitude of Iridium Flares
- Geometry to the Rescue: A Story in Pictures
- How Now, Pythagoras?
- Pilots, Airplanes, and the Tangent of Three (3) Degrees
- When a Ruler Is Too Short

- Coastal Threat: A Story In Unit Conversions
- Isoperimetric Geometry
- Square Root of 2: Irrational, Yes! Impractical, No!
- Estimating Planar Areas Using Analogue Methods
- Proving the Pythagorean Theorem

- Volcanic Clouds and the Atmosphere
- Why Don’t Clouds Fall Out of the Sky?
- Making Clouds: Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in a Beaker

- Confidence in Medical Tests
- How to Win at Rock-Paper-Scissors
- An Example of the Value of Information

- Snowmelt and Floods
- Thermo and Fluid Dynamics of a Homemade “Lava Lamp”
- Mapping Your State and Community

- When a Ruler Is Too Short
- Studies of a Population of Stars: Distances and Motions
- Studies of a Population of Stars: How Bright Are the Stars, Really?
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations

- Can an Astronaut on Mars distinguish the Earth from its Moon?
- Earth Turns? Prove It!
- Just What is a Logarithm, Anyway?
- Length of the Day
- Modeling the Motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun
- Snowmelt and Floods
- The Cause of the Earth's Seasons
- The Moon Orbits the Sun?!?!
- Why Is There a Tidal Bulge Opposite the Moon?
- How Big Is the Earth?
- Measuring the Earth

- What is Wind Chill?
- Why is Summer Hot?
- Making Clouds: Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in a Beaker
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations

- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations
- Finding All Solutions to a Puzzle
- Measuring the Earth
- Motivating Honest Budgets and Hard Work Simultaneously
- Proving the Pythagorean Theorem

- Contouring and Topo Maps
- Cross Section and Slope
- When a Ruler Is Too Short
- Estimating Planar Areas Using Analogue Methods
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations

- Motivating Honest Budgets and Hard Work Simultaneously
- Battle Strategies in the Bismarck Sea
- How to Win at Rock-Paper-Scissors

- Geometry to the Rescue: A Story in Pictures
- How Now, Pythagoras?
- Isoperimetric Geometry
- Square Roots Using a Carpenter's Square
- When a Ruler Is Too Short
- Estimating Planar Areas Using Analogue Methods
- Measuring the Earth
- Proving the Pythagorean Theorem

- How Now, Pythagoras?
- Square Roots Using a Carpenter's Square
- Measuring the Earth
- What makes cities hot? An urban heat island activity

- Lower Calories, Lower Fat: Making a Healthier Cake Without Loss of Taste
- Confidence in Medical Tests

- Hypothermia in the Little House
- Preventing Hypothermia
- What is Wind Chill?
- What makes cities hot? An urban heat island activity

- Contouring and Topo Maps
- Mapping Your State and Community
- Studies of a Population of Stars: Mapping the Positions of Stars
- Battle Strategies in the Bismarck Sea

- Estimating Planar Areas Using Analogue Methods
- Measuring the Earth
- What makes cities hot? An urban heat island activity

- Can an Astronaut on Mars distinguish the Earth from its Moon?
- Modeling the Motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun
- The Cause of the Phases of the Moon
- The Moon Orbits the Sun?!?!

- Rotational Motion and Rocket Launches
- Studies of a Population of Stars: Distances and Motions
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations

- Earth Turns? Prove It!
- Launch Speed
- The Fall of the Ruler
- Why Is There a Tidal Bulge Opposite the Moon?

- Lower Calories, Lower Fat: Making a Healthier Cake Without Loss of Taste
- Confidence in Medical Tests

- Contouring and Topo Maps
- Cross Section and Slope
- How Thick is the Atmosphere?
- Just What is a Logarithm, Anyway?
- Learning from Slide Rules
- Mixing and Stirring
- Now You See It, Now You Don’t
- Particle Man and the Photon
- The Cause of the Phases of the Moon
- Volcanoes and Urban Planning
- Who Hits Harder: The Nordic Skier or Aerial Jumper?
- Thermo and Fluid Dynamics of a Homemade “Lava Lamp”
- Mapping Your State and Community
- Making Clouds: Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in a Beaker

- Can an Astronaut on Mars distinguish the Earth from its Moon?
- What the Doppler Effect Tells Us About Distant Stars and Planets

- Corrupted Politicians
- Matching Birthdays
- Probability and Traffic Signals
- The Mathematical Implications of Lying
- Confidence in Medical Tests
- How to Win at Rock-Paper-Scissors
- An Example of the Value of Information

- Estimating Planar Areas Using Analogue Methods
- Why Tailgating on Freeways is Unsafe: A Real-life Example Using Quadratic Equations
- Measuring the Earth

- How Now, Pythagoras?
- Square Roots Using a Carpenter's Square
- Measuring the Earth
- Proving the Pythagorean Theorem

- Earth Turns? Prove It!
- Modeling the Motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun
- Rotational Motion and Rocket Launches
- Measuring the Earth

- Length of the Day
- When a Ruler Is Too Short
- Studies of a Population of Stars: Distances and Motions
- Studies of a Population of Stars: How Bright Are the Stars, Really?
- Studies of a Population of Stars: Mapping the Positions of Stars

- Modeling the Motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun
- The Moon Orbits the Sun?!?!
- The Shadow of the Dog
- How Big Is the Earth?
- Measuring the Earth

- Determining the Altitude of Iridium Flares
- Pilots, Airplanes, and the Tangent of Three (3) Degrees
- When a Ruler Is Too Short

- Determining the Altitude of Iridium Flares
- How Far Can You See?
- Pilots, Airplanes, and the Tangent of Three (3) Degrees
- When a Ruler Is Too Short
- Measuring the Earth

- Hypothermia in the Little House
- Battle Strategies in the Bismarck Sea
- An Example of the Value of Information

- Preventing Hypothermia
- What is Wind Chill?
- Why Don’t Clouds Fall Out of the Sky?
- Making Clouds: Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in a Beaker

- Automatic Windshield Wipers

(conduction, conductivity, electricity, water, ion, wire, battery, motor) - Color and Spectrum

(Light, Color, Spectrum, Spectral Analysis, Blackbody) - Could a World of Swimmers Raise Sea Level?

(Sea level rise, Floating, Swimming, Oceans, Flooding) - Dream Job

(Geometric progression, Counter-intuitive result, Counting, Exponents, Estimates) - Geometric Addition + Logarithms = Geometric Multiplication

(Multiplication, Computation, Exponents, Logarithms, Number Line, Geometric Calculation) - How Many Days Are in a Year?

(Leap year, Year, Calendar, Error analysis, Successive approximations, Fractions) - Ice Sheets and Sea Level Rise

(Ice sheets, Sea level rise) - Learning to Think Globally

(Thinking globally, Estimating, Significant Figures) - Logarithms: Taking the Curve Out

(Logarithms, Mean Value, Statistics, Non-linear) - Making Months

(365, Gregorian calendar, Month, Days, Year, Week, Factor, Prime, Design tradeoff) - Modulus in Real Life

(Modulus, Remainder, Range, Domain, Clock, Pattern, Repetition, Periodic) - Scavenger Hunt: Simulating Natural Selection

(Natural Selection, Evolution, Adaptation, Mutation) - Seeing Interference Fringes

(Laser, Interference pattern, Fringes, Wave nature of light) - Seeing Interference Fringes with a Telescope

(Interferometer, Interference fringes, Telescope) - Spoon Mirror

(Observing, Mirror, Spoon, Lighthouse, Spotlight, Searchlight, Telescope) - Teaching Atomic Structure Using Cooperative Learning

(Cooperative learning, Atomic structure, Atomic number, Protons, Neutrons, Mass number, Isotopes) - Teaching Radicals in Less than Five Minutes

(Radicals, Roots) - The Rubber Band Problem

(Force, Inertia, Friction) - Two Answers are Better than One

(Estimating, Back-of-the-envelope calculation, Significant figures, Checking your work)