Based on United States national content guidelines, the entire subject matter of K-12 math and science has been divided into broad curriculum areas, called Science and Math "Standards."
Under each Standard are numerous "Benchmarks," which are specific curriculum topic statements, arranged by Grade Groups.
The Grade Groups are:
- Primary [K-2]
- Upper Elementary [3-5]
- Middle School [6-8]
- High School [9-12]
Each PUMAS example is referenced to one or more Benchmarks, and can be accessed by the Benchmark number.
Examples of the Benchmark Labeling Scheme:
- Benchmark number S1.2.4 is the fourth Benchmark, in Grade Group 2 (Upper Elementary), under Science Standard 1 ("Understands basic features of the Earth").
- Benchmark S1.2.4 is: "Knows that air is a substance that surrounds us, takes up space and whose movement we feel as wind."
- Benchmark number M8.3.2 is the second Benchmark, in Grade Group 3 (Middle School), under Math Standard 8 ("Understands and applies basic and advanced properties of the concepts of geometry").
- Benchmark M8.3.2 is: "Understands the basic features of coordinates."