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Table of Math Skills by Grade Group

Here is a table summarizing the key math skills that students may be expected to develop in each of four pre-college grade groupings. It is based on United States national content guidelines. For more detail, see the Mathematics Standards and Benchmarks.

This table is provided by the Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL), and is used here with their permission.

Download as a PDF (40 K)

Upper Elementary
Middle School
High School


Problem-Solving represents problems with physical objects or pictures trial and error; process of elimination proportional thinking proofs; algorithms
Numbers whole numbers decimals, fractions, odd & even numbers, mixed numbers; place value rational & irrational numbers; exponents; scientific notation; ratios, proportions, percents real-number system; inequalities
Computation adds & subtracts whole numbers adds, subtracts, multiplies, & divides whole numbers, and decimals; uses calculator adds, subtracts, multiplies, & divides mixed numbers & fractions; estimation techniques adds and subtracts algebraic expressions; performs basic operations involving roots and exponents
Measurement length, width, height, weight, time, temperature area, mass, volume, circumference, perimeter, capacity rate; standard & metric systems; scale drawings; indirect measurements; surface area velocity; acceleration; precision, accuracy, & tolerance in measurements
Geometry circles, squares, triangles angles, similarity, symmetry, congruence slope; 3-dimensions; parallel, perpendicular; Pythagorean theorem; motion geometry; geometric models Pythagorean relationships; vectors; transformations of geometric shapes
Data Analysis simple graphs organizes simple data sets; constructs & reads simple graphs & charts central tendency (mean, median, mode); dispersion of data data matrices
Probability & Statistics likelihood of events predictions;data sampling estimates probabilities random variables; statistical measures; determines probabilities; normal curve
Algebra & Functions recognizes basic patterns constructs patterns variables; coordinates; solves simple systems of equations functions; algebraic modeling; systems of equations & inequalities; basic trigonometric methods