Table of Math Skills by Grade Group
Here is a table summarizing the key math skills that students may be expected to develop in each of four precollege grade groupings. It is based on United States national content guidelines. For more detail, see the Mathematics Standards and Benchmarks.
This table is provided by the Midcontinent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL), and is used here with their permission.
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Primary (K2) 
Upper Elementary (35) 
Middle School (68) 
High School (912)



ProblemSolving  represents problems with physical objects or pictures  trial and error; process of elimination  proportional thinking  proofs; algorithms 
Numbers  whole numbers  decimals, fractions, odd & even numbers, mixed numbers; place value  rational & irrational numbers; exponents; scientific notation; ratios, proportions, percents  realnumber system; inequalities 
Computation  adds & subtracts whole numbers  adds, subtracts, multiplies, & divides whole numbers, and decimals; uses calculator  adds, subtracts, multiplies, & divides mixed numbers & fractions; estimation techniques  adds and subtracts algebraic expressions; performs basic operations involving roots and exponents 
Measurement  length, width, height, weight, time, temperature  area, mass, volume, circumference, perimeter, capacity  rate; standard & metric systems; scale drawings; indirect measurements; surface area  velocity; acceleration; precision, accuracy, & tolerance in measurements 
Geometry  circles, squares, triangles  angles, similarity, symmetry, congruence  slope; 3dimensions; parallel, perpendicular; Pythagorean theorem; motion geometry; geometric models  Pythagorean relationships; vectors; transformations of geometric shapes 
Data Analysis  simple graphs  organizes simple data sets; constructs & reads simple graphs & charts  central tendency (mean, median, mode); dispersion of data  data matrices 
Probability & Statistics  likelihood of events  predictions;data sampling  estimates probabilities  random variables; statistical measures; determines probabilities; normal curve 
Algebra & Functions  recognizes basic patterns  constructs patterns  variables; coordinates; solves simple systems of equations  functions; algebraic modeling; systems of equations & inequalities; basic trigonometric methods 