Here is a table summarizing the key math skills that students may be expected to develop in each of four pre-college grade groupings. It is based on United States national content guidelines. For more detail, see the Mathematics Standards and Benchmarks.
This table is provided by the Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory (McREL), and is used here with their permission.
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|Problem-Solving||represents problems with physical objects or pictures||trial and error; process of elimination||proportional thinking||proofs; algorithms|
|Numbers||whole numbers||decimals, fractions, odd & even numbers, mixed numbers; place value||rational & irrational numbers; exponents; scientific notation; ratios, proportions, percents||real-number system; inequalities|
|Computation||adds & subtracts whole numbers||adds, subtracts, multiplies, & divides whole numbers, and decimals; uses calculator||adds, subtracts, multiplies, & divides mixed numbers & fractions; estimation techniques||adds and subtracts algebraic expressions; performs basic operations involving roots and exponents|
|Measurement||length, width, height, weight, time, temperature||area, mass, volume, circumference, perimeter, capacity||rate; standard & metric systems; scale drawings; indirect measurements; surface area||velocity; acceleration; precision, accuracy, & tolerance in measurements|
|Geometry||circles, squares, triangles||angles, similarity, symmetry, congruence||slope; 3-dimensions; parallel, perpendicular; Pythagorean theorem; motion geometry; geometric models||Pythagorean relationships; vectors; transformations of geometric shapes|
|Data Analysis||simple graphs||organizes simple data sets; constructs & reads simple graphs & charts||central tendency (mean, median, mode); dispersion of data||data matrices|
|Probability & Statistics||likelihood of events||predictions;data sampling||estimates probabilities||random variables; statistical measures; determines probabilities; normal curve|
|Algebra & Functions||recognizes basic patterns||constructs patterns||variables; coordinates; solves simple systems of equations||functions; algebraic modeling; systems of equations & inequalities; basic trigonometric methods|