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# M1.4.2

Constructs and describes simple algorithms for solving problems that take several steps.

### An Example of the Value of Information

Using "expected value" to determine the value of information. Examples: Without information, should we drill for oil or not? With geological information, should we drill or not?

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### Battle Strategies in the Bismarck Sea

Opposing naval commanders in a war must choose how to attack and defend rncritical areas.

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### Finding All Solutions to a Puzzle

The non-zero digits can be organized into a 3-by-3 array such that each row, rneach column, and each diagonal adds up to the same total. How many solutions rnare there? Find and describe them.

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### Studies of a Population of Stars: Mapping the Positions of Stars

Make observations and use available data and simple calculations to correlate observations and data in the characterization of stars. In this activity, students can discover that the positions of stars in the sky illuminates information about the Milky Way galaxy.

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### Studies of a Population of Stars: Distances and Motions

Make observations and use available data and simple calculations to correlate observations and data in the characterization of stars. In this activity, the distances of bright stars are calculated and their motions, in the plane of the sky and in three dimensions are illuminated.

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### Ice Sheets and Sea Level Rise

The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica contain massive amounts of frozen water (i.e., ice) that, if broken off or melted, for instance from extended global warming or from outward ice flow, would go largely into the oceans. In view of the vast size of the oceans, covering over 70% of the Earth's surface area, many people might at first think that the addition of ice or melted ice from the ice sheets would have little impact on global sea level.

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### Can an Astronaut on Mars distinguish the Earth from its Moon?

Some day an astronaut will stand on Mars and look back at Earth. As Alfred, Lord Tennyson wrote Venus, Hesper, Were we native to that splendour or in Mars We would see the globe we groan in, fairest of their evening stars Could we dream of wars and carnage, craft and madness lust and spite Roaring London, raving Paris, in that peaceful point of light? Would we not, when gazing heavenward, at a star so silver-fair Yearn, and clasp the hands, and murmur: Would to God that we were there? But what exactly will one see from Mars?

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