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Understands basic characteristics of and calculates measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, mode).

The Mathematical Implications of Lying

This article explores how statistics can be interpreted in different ways to yield different conclusions. It describes a pair of class activities. In the first, the results are interpreted to "show" that taking a group rather than an individual perspective is ultimately beneficial to the individual. In the second, a variation is added "showing" that telling the truth is better that lying.

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Logarithms: Taking the Curve Out

Logarithms are very handy when dealing with numbers at lots of different scales (see related PUMAS example: Just What is a Logarithm, Anyway?). But they also have another useful feature: they help us average measurements of physical phenomena that have nonlinear behavior. A common example in my field of study relates cloud "albedo" to cloud optical depth (Fig. 1); but similar examples may be found when examining many natural phenomena.

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