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S12.4.3

Knows that apparent changes in wavelength can provide information about changes in motion because the observed wavelength of a wave depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer; if either the source or observer is moving toward the other, the observed wavelength is shorter; if either is moving away, the wavelength is longer.

What the Doppler Effect Tells Us About Distant Stars and Planets

Police officers, air traffic controllers, and astronomers all use the Doppler Effect to determine the speed of an object as it approaches or recedes from their radars or telescopes. The frequency (or pitch, for sound) of waves coming from a moving object is changed an amount directly proportional to the speed of approach or recession. The effect of the change, to raise or lower the frequency, specifically indicates that the source is approaching or receding, respectively.

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