Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website.
Skip to main content


Knows that solar radiation heats the land masses, oceans and air, and that transfer of heat energy at the boundaries (between the atmosphere, the land masses and the oceans) results in layers at different temperatures and densities in both the ocean and atmosphere; the action of gravitational force on layers of different densities causes them to rise or fall, and such circulation (influenced by the rotation of the Earth) produces winds and ocean currents.

Volcanic Clouds and the Atmosphere

We frequently hear about volcanoes, eruptions, explosions, and probably think these things will never affect us, that volcanoes only exist at places far away. However, they should be a concern to everybody, since more than 50 volcanoes scattered throughout the world are active every year and their eruptions affect millions of people. Volcanic explosions produce clouds, which the atmosphere transports. This means that volcanic clouds can travel long distances and affect people that live far from their sources.

View the full Example

Mixing and Stirring

Combining two fluids (confluence of two rivers, Mediterranean water spilling over the straits of Gibraltar into the Atlantic) involves two processes: (1) stirring -- stretching of the bulk fluid, and (2) mixing -- exchange of materials on the molecular level (diffusion).

View the full Example